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Fabulous Fungi: The Immune Effects of Medicinal Mushrooms

With cold-and-flu season in full swing, it’s essential to have an array of tools to support your immune system. Edible medicinal mushrooms have been traditionally used for health promotion and longevity in East Asian countries for centuries. The polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) found in these fungi possess an array of health-promoting properties such as immunomodulation, antitumour, antiaging, and antioxidant effects.[1] Before we take a deeper dive into the various species of medicinal mushrooms and their immune effects, you must first be assured that your medicinal mushrooms have been prepared in such a way as to provide you with the greatest health benefits. You see, the structure of mushrooms, unless properly prepared, renders these polysaccharides and their immune supportive effects inaccessible to us.

The immune effects of medicinal mushrooms are attributed to the presence of polysaccharides known as beta-glucans (β‑glucans). Without proper preparation, these β‑glucans are inaccessible as they are found embedded in the mushroom’s cell walls, which are made from an incredibly tough, indigestible fibre known as chitin.[2] Chitin is the same substance from which the shells of crustaceans are made of, which—for those of you who have not tried to eat a lobster shell—is incredibly difficult to break down.

Hot-water extraction (as a tea or decoction) is the traditional preparation of medicinal mushrooms and the only clinically validated method for breaking these polysaccharides out of the indigestible cell walls.[3]

Why hot-water extraction? Hot-water extraction dissolves chitin, and once the water (and chitin) is removed, the β‑glucans are liberated and able to exert their health effects, which can be amplified through concentration.[4]

Once your medicinal mushrooms have undergone hot-water extraction, the question is: Which mushroom to choose? Let’s take a closer look at the most common medicinal mushrooms and their immune effects.

Shiitake (Lentinula edodes)

Shiitake is a culinary medicinal mushroom with its origins in Asian cuisine.[5] Rich in lentinan, a β‑glucan, shiitake has shown the ability to modulate the immune system—through affecting T cells, a category of cells important to fight viral infections and cancer. Lentinan was shown to reduce allergic reactions, to have anticancer effects, and to improve health outcomes in people with HIV.[6], [7] The anticancer effects of shiitake appear to be the result of accelerating the rate of cell death (known as apoptosis) in breast cancer as well as myeloma (bone-marrow cancer).[8] Shiitake has also been shown to reduce inflammation and to upregulate secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), therefore improving the immune function in the digestive tract. It also appears to modify the composition of the gut microbiome—a major site for our immune system.[9], [10]

Maitake (Grifola frondosa)

Maitake’s main immune-modifying effects have been attributed to β‑1,3‑glucan and β‑1,6‑glucan. These have been shown to enhance the functioning of several different categories of immune cells, including macrophages as well as T and NK cells, and to augment antibody production.[11], [12], [13], [14] Through increasing T‑ and NK‑cell numbers, maitake has demonstrated anticancer effects in patients with lung, liver, and breast cancers.[15] Additionally, maitake is showing promising results in its anticancer effects against prostate cancer, by increasing the rate of cell death for prostate-cancer cells.[16] And much like shiitake, maitake has also demonstrated improved health outcomes in the form of a raised CD4+ (aka T‑helper cells that contribute directly to viral clearance, among other functions) count for people diagnosed with HIV.[17]

Chaga (Inonotus obliquus)

Chaga is a parasitic fungus that grows commonly on birch trees. Chaga’s main immune-supporting effects are due to the presence of both β‑glucans and botulin.[18] Hot-water extracts of chaga have been shown to reduce markers of inflammation including TNF‑α that are implicated in a variety of autoimmune conditions.[19] Chaga has been shown to increase production of immune cells—including macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, and basophils—that were suppressed from chemotherapy.[20] Aside from improving immune health among the immunocompromised, chaga has shown antiviral effects against a range of viruses including herpes simplex virus‑1 (HSV‑1) by preventing it from fusing with and infecting host cells.[21], [22] Additional antiviral effects have been demonstrated against HPV as well as HIV.[23], [24] Like its fellow medicinal mushrooms, chaga was also shown to slow the growth of colon-, breast-, lung-, and brain-cancer cells.[25], [26], [27], [28], [29]

Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum)

Reishi—the Japanese word for “mushroom of immortality”—has a long history of use for immune support.[30] Reishi, like other medicinal mushrooms, is well known for its antiviral and antitumour effects. Through increasing activity of tumour-suppressing NK and T cells, reishi has shown positive outcomes in the treatment of breast, lung, and colorectal cancers.[31], [32], [33], [34], [35], [36] Its antiviral effects have been demonstrated most clearly in the accelerated relief in symptoms of recurring genital herpes.[37]

Turkey Tail (Coriolus versicolor)

The active constituents in coriolus have been identified as proteoglycans with a β‑1,4‑glucan structure.[38], [39] Polysaccharides from coriolus have been shown to have an adjuvant effect when combined with other anticancer treatments including increasing NK‑cell function as well as neutrophils and T‑cell counts.[40], [41] Coriolus has mostly been used as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of lung, stomach, esophageal, colorectal, and breast cancers.[42], [43]


Also known as caterpillar fungus, wild cordyceps (Cordyceps sinensis) is not found growing on trees as its fellow fungi are, but it is rather found growing on an insect host.[44] Nowadays, they come from farms growing similar species like Cordyceps militaris or Paecilomyces hepiali. The active constituents in cordyceps include β‑1,3‑glucan and β‑1,6‑glucan.[45] Cordyceps plays a role in increasing several immune-cell types including helper T cells and NK cells.[46] Thus far, cordyceps’ strongest immune effect comes in the form of increasing lifespan in patients with liver cancer.[47]

When it comes to selecting a medicinal-mushroom product, there are two key considerations that we have reviewed. First is whether your mushrooms have been prepared as a hot-water extraction so that you can garner the greatest immune-enhancing effects of these fantastic fungi. Second is what species of medicinal mushroom to use—which ultimately boils down (pun intended) to the desired immune outcome you seek which, of course, should be discussed with your health-care practitioner.

Dr. Colleen Hartwick, ND

Dr. Colleen Hartwick is a licensed naturopathic physician practising on North Vancouver Island, BC, with a special interest in trauma as it plays a role in disease.



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